5%). A national Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) audit was conducted to assessed outcomes from concurrent chemoradiotherapy in cervical cancer, reporting on survival and late effects (Vale et?al. 2010). This audit reported toxicity related to bowel, bladder and vagina, but like the Cochrane review, did not report on bone toxicity. It is clear from this study and others that bone toxicity is a frequent consequence of gynaecological cancer treatment and is specifically a greater concern in patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Further studies are needed to investigate BMD changes in these patients to address risk factors aiming to reduce the incidence of insufficiency fractures. None. None declared. ""The role of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, family history of cancer and the interaction of cigarettes and family history in the etiology of Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in general and within each histologic type are unclear. Bortezomib purchase
We conducted a case-control study among 1,044 Han Chinese patients with NPC and 1,095 Han Chinese cancer-free control subjects. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between histologic type of NPC and cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and family history. The results indicated that NPC was significantly associated with cigarette smoking [adjusted odds ratio Panobinostat
(OR) = 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38�C3.70], and the association exhibited a dose-response relationship for intensity, duration, and cumulative consumption of cigarettes (ptrend < 0.0001 for intensity, duration and cumulative consumption of cigarettes). Positive family history of cancer led to a significant 12-fold elevated risk of NPC (adjusted OR = 12.95, 95% CI, 7.12�C23.54) and acted jointly with cigarettes in contributing selleck products
to NPC risk (adjusted OR = 56.68, 95% CI, 17.25�C186.19). The association of NPC risk with cigarettes was stronger for nonkeratinizing carcinoma than for keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC), whereas family history was more closely associated with KSCC. NPC risk was not associated with alcohol consumption. Our study demonstrated that cigarette smoking and family history of cancer could serve independently and jointly as risk factors for etiology of NPC and might affect the risk of histology-specific NPC differently. This knowledge may help facilitate comprehension of NPC etiology in general as well as within each histologic type, and thereby improve prevention efforts. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a relatively rare cancer in the United States and other western countries, has the highest incidence and mortality in southern China, accounting for 20�C30 new cases per100,000 Chinese person annually.1, 2 In contrast, central China, although similar in ethnic origin as compared to southern China, has a NPC incidence rate as low as 2�C4/100,000 person-years,3 only a little higher than what is found in western countries.