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Despite dramatic differences in Mn(II) oxidation rates between plumes and background seawater, microbial diversity and membership were remarkably similar. All bacterial clone libraries were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and archaeal clone libraries were dominated by Crenarchaeota. Two lineages, both phylogenetically related to methanotrophs and/or methylotrophs, were consistently over-represented in the plume. Eight Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria were isolated, tuclazepam but none of these or previously identified Mn(II) oxidizers were abundant in clone libraries. Taken together with Mn(II) oxidation rates measured in laboratory cultures and in the field, these results suggest that Mn(II) oxidation in the GB hydrothermal plume is mediated by genome-level dynamics (gene content and/or expression) of microorganisms that are indigenous and abundant in the deep sea but have yet to be unidentified as Mn(II) oxidizers. ""Background? Sublingual buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, yet intravenous buprenorphine misuse occurs. A buprenorphine/naloxone formulation was developed to mitigate this misuse risk. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was conducted to assess the intravenous abuse potential of buprenorphine/naloxone compared with buprenorphine in buprenorphine-maintained injection drug users (IDUs). Methods? XAV-939 mw Intravenous heroin users (n?=?12) lived in the hospital for 8�C9 weeks and were maintained on each of three different sublingual buprenorphine doses (2?mg, 8?mg, 24?mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous placebo, naloxone, heroin and low and high doses of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone Quizartinib order were examined. Every participant received each test dose under the three buprenorphine maintenance dose conditions. Results? Intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone was self-administered less frequently than buprenorphine or heroin (P?<?0.0005). Participants were most likely to self-administer drug intravenously when maintained on the lowest sublingual buprenorphine dose. Subjective ratings of ��drug liking�� and ��desire to take the drug again�� were lower for buprenorphine/naloxone than for buprenorphine or heroin (P?=?0.0001). Participants reported that they would pay significantly less money for buprenorphine/naloxone than for buprenorphine or heroin (P?<?0.05). Seven adverse events were reported; most were mild and transient. Conclusions? These data suggest that although the buprenorphine/naloxone combination has intravenous abuse potential, that potential is lower than it is for buprenorphine alone, particularly when participants received higher maintenance doses and lower buprenorphine/naloxone challenge doses.</div>
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