According to Kwak et al.  the incidence of EA was decreased without delay in the recovery time with intravenous injection of ketamine 1.0?mg/kg, administered http://www.selleckchem.com/
after sevoflurane induction in young children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane general anesthesia. In a study done by Lee et al. , the incidence of EA was decreased without any particular side-effects or delay in the recovery time after intravenous administration of ketamine 0.25?mg/kg or 0.5?mg/kg 10?min prior the end of surgery. Dalens et al.  reported that the administration of intravenous ketamine 0.25?mg/kg at the end of the scanning procedure prevented EA in children undergoing MRI under sevoflurane general anesthesia. Limited heptaminol
number of studies investigated sevoflurane general anesthesia for MRI scan using face mask with spontaneous breathing ?and?. In this study anesthesia was maintained under firmly secured fitted pediatric face mask sevoflurane in a titrating concentration of 1�C2% and the use of ketamine 1?mg/kg as a premedicant not only decreased sevoflurane concentration but also decreased significantly the incidence of EA and pausing of the scan (P?<?0.05). Kim et al.  recommended sevoflurane insufflation technique using nasal cannula as one of the sedation options in managing uncooperative children for painful procedure, not only for nonpainful radiologic examination. Ogurlu et al.  reported that sevoflurane could be reliably administered with a face mask at different <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ITF2357
(Givinostat).html">click here concentrations. They also noted that with the reduction of sevoflurane concentration (1.5�C1.25�C1%) inadequate anesthesia did not come about. Adequate anesthesia in children at low sevoflurane concentrations was made feasible in that study by premedication with midazolam before the MRI scan. Thus, we hypothesized that utilization of ketamine as premedicant prior the scan will reduce the required sevoflurane concentration in addition to reduction of EA and pausing of the scan. In this study, ketamine 0.25?mg/kg administered 10?min prior the end of the MRI scanning resulted in significant reduction in the incidence of EA. However, this did not result in reduction of the incidence of scan pausing as the anesthesia was maintained throughout the procedure by sevoflurane only. The incidence of scan pausing in this group was similar to the saline group. With regard to scanning times, recovery times, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters and complications, no significant differences were observed among the studied groups. Limitation of this study, premedication with sedatives or anxiolytics were not given to saline or ketamine 0.25 groups as preoperative anxiety may affect EA. Ketamine 1.0?mg/kg administered intravenously as a premedicant and ketamine 0.